### The experiment of Eratosthenes

Students will measure the region of the Earth using the method followed by Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC. – Students learn how to measure Earth’s circumference using simple mathematical formulas.

Cognitive domain (processes)
to think critically and creatively: Students are informed about the innovative idea that Eratosthenes had to measure the region of the Earth.

Cognitive domain (knowledge)
procedural knowledge: Students learn how Eratosthenes actually did his measurement and attempt to repeat it.

Affective
to respond and participate: Students follow the teacher’s instructions and try to measure the region of the Earth on their own.

Psycomotor
to imitate and try: Students follow step by step Eratosthenes’ process and measure the region of the Earth in the same way.

### Eratosthenes’ measurement of the Earth’s Circumference

Students will measure the Earth’s circumference based on Eratosthenes’ experiment, which he carried out at 3rd century B.C.

Cognitive domain (processes)
to think critically and creatively: Students learn about the innovative way Eratosthenes used to calculate Earth’s circumference.

Cognitive domain (knowledge)
procedural knowledge: Students understand how exactly Eratosthenes performed his measurement and attempt to repeat it.

Affective
to respond and participate: Students follow the guidelines given by the teacher and perform the measurement of Earth’s circumference themselves.

Psycomotor
to imitate and try: Learners follow the same procedure as Eratosthenes did and try to measure Earth’s circumference exactly as he did.

### Foucault’s pendulum

Students will observe Foucault’s pendulum to observe the rotation of the Earth around its axis.

Cognitive domain (processes)
to think critically and creatively: Foucault’s pendulum is an innovative experiment for his time. It is an excellent exhibit in order to inspire students to adopt alternative ways of thinking.

Cognitive domain (knowledge)
conceptual knowledge: Students know movements and fundamental concepts of Physics such as circular motion and the principle of conservation of energy.

Affective
to respond and participate: Students are involved in a process of challenging and controlling the events they observe. They are encouraged to imagine alternative interpretations of these phenomena in order to explain them.

Psycomotor
to adapt and perform creatively: Students learn to use PDA devices and conduct small but accurate measurements using the exhibit. They learn to use their measurements to draw conclusions.

### Psychology: Is internet gambling is more addictive than land-based casinos?

Gamblers can gamble in front of their home computer without the need of other people or closing the casino. In addition, providers know who is most likely to fall for them: young adults are more receptive to gambling via the Internet. Lotto’s harder in the age group.

According to experts, gambling on the Internet is much more addictive than in casinos. “At home at the computer, those affected cannot be controlled,” warned psychologist Chantal Mörsen of the University of Mainz. Games of chance on the Internet are available around the clock; usually not even the family notices when a player falls for them.

According to current studies, there are 250,000 gambling addicts in Germany; this corresponds to the number of drug or alcohol addicts. Mörsen is an expert at the “Symposium on Gambling 2008” of the Research Centre for Gambling at the University of Stuttgart- Hohenheim. Experts will discuss the implementation of the State Treaty on Gaming and the latest findings of gambling research there on Thursday and Friday.

## Life is subordinated to the game

According to the stock exchanges, pathological gambling addiction is characterised above all by the fact that players subordinate their whole life to gambling. “The financial burdens are increasing, social relationships are separated – and the game continues.” Often the whole thing leads to hopelessness and resignation. “In such situations, the risk of suicide increases.”

“There is still no boom in online gaming in Germany,” Mörsen reported. Nevertheless, the danger is great. “Especially since gambling addiction can develop very rapidly on the Internet.” While an addiction to the machines in the casino develops slowly also because of the social control, it is usually very fast in the Internet. “Also because the players can stay on for 24 hours and put their winnings right back in.” Being able to bet immediately on the next goal scorer, the fastest of the next round or something similar at sporting events is a special attraction.

## Everything is tried out

Online gambling is also so dangerous, Mörsen said, because it is aimed at the social group that is most likely to become addicted to gambling: young adults. “They try everything. They also lack experience of how best to deal with their stress and problems,” said Mörsen. Younger people were more willing to accept offers they feel they could help them in the short term.

The most dangerous are always the gambling offers, which bring direct profits, as for example slots in the casino. In the lottery, the risk of addiction is relatively low because players have to wait quite a long time for their winnings. Lotto and other lotteries could, however, be an introduction to gambling addiction, especially among young people and young adults.

### The River of Life

Short Description: The Life of the River is an educational activity in the form of play for high school and high school students. Secondly, it is addressed to teachers who want an essential and at the same time easy and well-organised activity and are not afraid to get in touch with their students. In addition, contact with science, and in particular biology, would give the teachers involved, at least in the handling of the cognitive content, a sense of comfort. The activity develops into a wetland where, after collection, recognition of small organisms, which are biological indices, the quality of the environment. In the specific application the activity develops around an excursion visit to the Fodele wetland. – A game based activity that takes place near a river.

Cognitive domain (processes) to apply: Students should be able to apply scientific methodology.

Cognitive domain (knowledge) procedural knowledge: Students should use small mobile devices connected to the internet and apply their previous knowledge Effective to respond and participate: Students need to learn to work together and complete a study.

Psycomotor to perform independently, skilfully and precisely: Students should be able to accurately identify micro-organisms based on the instructions given to them.

### Newton’s third law – rocket science

Cognitive domain (processes)
to understand: understand newton’s third law and apply it on everyday life situations
to apply: apply newton’ s laws in science matters such as the movement of rockets and aircrafts

Cognitive domain (knowledge)
conceptual knowledge: find connections between basic laws and their applicationsin science
procedural knowledge: find techniques to develop experimental design (by given guidance) to varify laws of mechanics

Affective
to respond and participate: Learners should start collecting data and information by themselves and in group work, such as videos, pictures, plain text, …

Psycomotor
to perform confidently following instructions: develop experimental designs, collecting data and information
to adapt and perform creatively: increase effectiveness of designs, set up self-developped experiments